Subscription and open access journals from SAGE Publishing, the world’s leading independent academic publisher. This article is about the psychology theory. SDT focuses on the degree to which an individual’s behavior is self-wellness index a self assessment of health and vitality pdf and self-determined.
1980s that SDT was formally introduced and accepted as a sound empirical theory. Key studies that led to emergence of SDT included research on intrinsic motivation. Internalization refers to the active attempt to transform an extrinsic motive into personally endorsed values and thus assimilate behavioural regulations that were originally external. According to Deci and Ryan, the three psychological needs motivate the self to initiate behavior and specify nutriments that are essential for psychological health and well-being of an individual.
SDT is centered on the belief that human nature shows persistent positive features, that it repeatedly shows effort, agency and commitment in their lives that the theory calls “inherent growth tendencies”. People also have innate psychological needs that are the basis for self-motivation and personality integration. To actualise their inherent potential they need nurturing from the social environment. SDT supports three basic psychological needs that must be satisfied to foster well-being and health.
These needs can be universally applied. However, some may be more salient than others at certain times and are expressed differently based on time, culture, or experience. SDT claims to give a different approach to motivation, considering what motivates a person at any given time as opposed to seeing motivation as a unitary concept. SDT makes distinctions between different types of motivation and the consequences of them.
SDT associates with cognitive and social development. SDT that specifies factors explaining intrinsic motivation and variability with it and looks at how social and environmental factors help or hinder intrinsic motivations. CET focuses on the needs of competence and autonomy. Claiming social context events like feedback on work or rewards lead to feelings of competence and so enhance intrinsic motivations. Autonomy, however, must accompany competence for people to see their behaviours as self determined by intrinsic motivation. For this to happen there must be immediate contextual support for both needs or inner resources based on prior development support for both needs. CET and intrinsic motivation is also linked to relatedness through the hypothesis that intrinsic motivation flourishes if linked with a sense of security and relatedness.
SDT, to explain the different ways extrinsically motivated behaviour is regulated. OIT details the different forms of extrinsic motivation and the contexts in which they come about. It is the context of such motivation that concerns the SDT theory as these contexts affect whether the motivations are internalised and so integrated into the sense of self. Is the least autonomous, it is performed because of external demand or possible reward. This is the kind of behaviour where people feel motivated to demonstrate ability to maintain self-worth.
While this is internally driven, introjected behavior has an external perceived locus of causality or not coming from one’s self. Since the causality of the behavior is perceived as external, the behavior is considered non-self-determined. Is a more autonomously driven form of extrinsic motivation. It involves consciously valuing a goal or regulation so that said action is accepted as personally important. Is the most autonomous kind of extrinsic motivation.