Pedagogies or approaches to teaching writing are grounded in a range of different traditions and philosophies. Some universities require further instruction in writing and offer courses that expand upon the skills developed in First-year composition. For example, the skills required to write business letters or annual types of composition writing pdf will differ significantly from those required to write historical or scientific research or personal memoirs. Doctoral programs in Composition Studies are available at more than seventy universities and Masters’s programs are available in over 170 universities.
Such programs are commonly housed within English Studies or Education programs. Second language writing is the practice of teaching English composition to non native speakers and writers of English. Teaching writing to ESL students does not receive much attention because even in ESL classes teachers focus on speaking, listening and reading, not just writing. Paul Kei Matsuda in his article “Situating ESL Writing in a Cross-Disciplinary Context” stresses the importance of teaching writing specifically with understanding the needs of ESL students to help them improve their writing. Teaching writing has progressed through several approaches during the history of education in the United States. ESL teachers might need to explore common methods which are the cognitive, social and expressive theories to create an approach that meets the needs of ESL writers and help them to overcome their difficulties. The first one of these approaches is the cognitive view which says that writing is progressing from one stage to another in a series of single steps.
That means “good” writing is a planned process, which includes planning, translating and reviewing. Understanding Composing” by Sondra Perl explains in detail this approach. She suggests that the composition of writing occurs as a recursive process. She took this idea from her observation of different writers. She thinks that writers return to “backwards” parts of the process in order to move “forward” with the overall composition.
ESL teachers may find this approach helpful at first in teaching beginning ESL students because at this level students do not have large amounts of vocabulary and grammar or knowledge of the style of essays which is the basis of writing English. Many kinds of grammar make ESL students confused, especially because there are many exceptions. Because writing styles are different in different languages, ESL students need time to master them. Therefore, ESL teachers should find an effective way to teach ESL students vocabulary, grammar and style because the writing of English requires them.
The cognitive approach can meet these needs because it emphasizes the steps, organization and process of writing. Another approach is the social view which shows the importance of teaching writing by making students learn the different languages of discourse communities. This is what David Bartholemea emphasizes in his article “Inventing the University”. He uses “Inventing the University” as a phrase that describes the writing process that a student will experience when writing teachers ask them to write about a topic that relates with a discourse community which is new for them. When the ESL students have become good at grammar and style, they face a large problem when they enter their chosen academic field.