Theories of guidance and counselling pdf

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. What unites all types of professional counseling is the role of practitioners, theories of guidance and counselling pdf combine giving advice on their topic of expertise with counseling techniques that support clients in making complex decisions and facing difficult situations.

There is no agreed definition of career counseling worldwide, mainly due to conceptual, cultural and linguistic differences. Career counseling or career guidance includes a wide variety of professional activities which help people deal with career-related challenges. Career counselling is also offered in various settings, including in groups and individually, in person or by means of digital communication. Several approaches have been undertaken to systemize the variety of professional activities related to career guidance and counseling. Career counselors performing in any of these roles are expected to behave professionally, e. The NPR can, therefore, be understood as a state-of-the-art framework which includes all relevant aspects of career counselling.

For this reason, other models haven’t been included here so far. Professional career counselors can support people with career-related challenges. Through their expertise in career development and labor markets, they can put a person’s qualifications, experience, strengths and weakness in a broad perspective while also considering their desired salary, personal hobbies and interests, location, job market and educational possibilities. Through their counseling and teaching abilities, career counselors can additionally support people in gaining a better understanding of what really matters for them personally, how they can plan their careers autonomously, or help them in making tough decisions and getting through times of crisis. It is due to these various benefits of career counseling that policy makers in many countries publicly fund guidance services. Career development is no longer viewed as a linear process. More consideration is now placed on nonlinear, chance and unplanned influences.

At the same time, policy makers agree that the competence of career counselors is one of the most important factors in ensuring that people receive high quality support in dealing with their career questions. At the same time, many training programs for career counselors are becoming increasingly multidisciplinary. The National Career Development Association is the only professional association of career counselors in the United States that provides certification in career counseling. There are many career guidance and counseling centers all over the world. They give services of guidance and counseling on higher studies, possibilities, chances and nature of courses and institutes. Also that these services are offered either fixing up a meeting with the Experts or having telephonic conversations with the guide or even the online guidance which is very common these days with the people getting services on click of their mouse. There are many such service providers all over the world providing online counseling to people about their career or conducting a psychometric test to know the persons aptitude as well as interests.

Tests are often used in career counseling to help clients make realistic career decisions. Tests used in career counseling generally fall into three categories: interest inventories, personality inventories, and aptitude tests. Interest inventories are not technically tests at all, because there are no right or wrong answers. The theory is that if you have similar interests to people in an occupation who like their job, you will probably like that occupation also. Thus, interest inventories may suggest occupations that the client has not thought of and which have a good chance of being something that the client will be happy with. Aptitude tests can predict with good odds whether a particular person will be able to be successful in a particular occupation.

For example, a student who wants to be a physicist is unlikely to succeed if he cannot do the math. An aptitude test will tell him if he is likely to do will in advanced math, which is necessary for physics. There are also aptitude tests which can predict success or failure in many different occupations. Personality inventories are sometimes used to help people with career choice. The use of these inventories for this purpose is questionable, because in any occupation there are people with many different personalities. A popular personality inventory is the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. It is based on Carl Jung’s theory of personality, but Jung never approved it.

According to Jung most people fall in the middle of each scale, but the MBTI ignores this and puts everyone in a type category. For example, according to the MBTI, everyone is either an extrovert or an introvert. According to Jung, most people are somewhere in between, and people at the extremes are rare. The validity of the MBTI for career choice is highly questionable.