1 billion or more, megaprojects and risk an anatomy of ambition pdf many years to develop and build, involve multiple public and private stakeholders, are transformational, and impact millions of people”. Megaprojects can also be defined as “initiatives that are physical, very expensive, and public”. 8 percent of total GDP. Megaprojects are often affected by corruption leading to higher cost and lower benefit.
According to Bent Flyvbjerg, “As a general rule of thumb, ‘megaprojects’ are measured in billions of dollars, ‘major projects’ in hundreds of millions, and ‘projects’ in millions and tens of millions. They may also serve as the means for opening frontiers. Megaprojects have undergone a wide criticism for their top down planning processes and for their ill effects on certain communities. United States and Germany prevented developments due to perceived environmental and social concerns. More recently, new types of megaprojects have been identified that no longer follow the old models of being singular and monolithic in their purposes, but have become quite flexible and diverse, such as waterfront redevelopment schemes that seem to offer something to everybody. However, just like the old megaprojects, the new ones also foreclose “upon a wide variety of social practices, reproducing rather than resolving urban inequality and disenfranchisement”. Because of their plethora of land uses “these mega-projects inhibit the growth of oppositional and contestational practices”.
The collective benefits that are often the underlying logic of a mega-project, are here reduced to an individualized form of public benefit. Technological sublime: the rapture that engineers and technologists get from building large and innovative projects, pushing the boundaries for what technology can do. Political sublime: the rapture politicians get from building monuments to themselves and for their causes. Economic sublime: the delight business people and trade unions get from making lots of money and jobs from megaprojects.