Layout of water distribution system pdf

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Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Before that electricity was usually generated where it was used. Each doubling of the voltage would allow the same size cable to transmit the same amount of power four times the distance for a given power loss. 110 volt system being used throughout the system, from the generators to the final use. The Edison DC system needed thick copper conductor cables, and the generating plants needed to be within about 1.

Transmitting electricity a long distance at high voltage and then reducing it to a lower voltage for lighting became a recognized engineering roadblock to electric power distribution with many, not very satisfactory, solutions tested by lighting companies. AC voltage to be “stepped up” to much higher transmission voltages and then dropped down to a lower end user voltage. US AC transformer systems, pointing out all the deaths caused by high voltage AC systems over the years and claiming any AC system was inherently dangerous. Edison’s propaganda campaign was short lived with his company switching over to AC in 1892.

The distribution system would remain regulated, but generation, retail, and sometimes transmission systems were transformed into competitive markets. Electric power begins at a generating station, where the potential difference can be as high as 13,800 volts. DC from the public AC supply, or may have their own generation systems. Once in the transmission system, electricity from each generating station is combined with electricity produced elsewhere. Electricity is consumed as soon as it is produced. The voltages and loadings are typical of a European network.

Transformers step down transmission voltages, 35kV or more, down to primary distribution voltages. These are medium voltage circuits, usually 600-35,000 V. The bus distributes power to distribution lines, which fan out to customers. 240 volts in the US for residential customers. The final circuit in an urban system may be less than 50 feet, but may be over 300 feet for a rural customer. Distribution networks are divided into two types, radial or network.