2015, which could not be achieved. It is estimated that 76 percent of the developing world’s poor live in rural areas, well above the overall population share living in rural areas, which issues and challenges of rural marketing pdf only 58 percent.
Disparities between rural and urban areas is on the rise, particularly in many developing and transitional countries. Individuals living in rural areas tend to have less access to social services, exacerbating the effects of rural poverty. Without roads, the rural poor are cut off from technological development and emerging markets in more urban areas. Such isolation hinders integration with urban society and established markets, which could result in greater development and economic security. Moreover, poor or nonexistent irrigation systems threaten agricultural yields because of uncertainty in the supply of water for crop production. Many poor rural areas lack any irrigation to store or pump water, resulting in fewer crops, fewer days of employment and less productivity.
There are various direct and indirect channels through which transport infrastructure may affect security and peace building. They found case studies show road development programmes can produce short-term employment opportunities in fragile and conflict affected regions particularly applying to programmes where rural road development is carried out through community-driven development or with special emphasis on inclusion through participatory methods. There was also some evidence that rural road construction reduced isolation for minority groups and provided more opportunities for inclusion in wider economic activity. However, this evidence did not relate directly to reducing conflict or improving security. In general rural road development leads to improved access of both users and suppliers. This occurs due to a reduction in commuting time, as well transport costs but these benefits tend to accrue disproportionately to the influential and well-educated.
Himalayas and Andes present formidable barriers to development even beyond the typical rural poverty situation. In many rural societies, there are few job opportunities outside of agriculture, often resulting in food and income insecurity due to the precarious nature of farming. Without access to other labor markets, rural workers continue to work for extremely low wages in agricultural jobs that tend to have seasonal fluctuations and thus little income security. In addition to labor, the rural poor often lack access to capital markets and financial institutions, hindering their ability to establish savings and obtain credit that could be used to purchase working capital or increase their supply of raw materials. When coupled with scarce job opportunities, poor access to credit and capital perpetuates rural poverty. Numerous international development organisations have studied, reported, recommended and agreed that lack of mobility impedes human progress and development. Yet there is very little evidence of anyone attempting to actually address and alleviate the problem by introducing handcarts and wheelbarrows into remote and rural areas where they would be most beneficial.
As a result, rural poverty in the U. 95 percent of persistent poverty counties in the U. 2 percent of persistent poverty counties are urban. Some macro-level economic changes have been associated with an increase in spatial inequalities. Both of these nations demonstrate that despite greater openness and growth, spatial inequalities do not necessarily decrease accordingly with overall economic growth.