This article has multiple issues. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Infection is spread infection control protocol in icu pdf the susceptible patient in the clinical setting by various means. Health care staff can spread infection, in addition to contaminated equipment, bed linens, or air droplets.
The infection can originate from the outside environment, another infected patient, staff that may be infected, or in some cases, the source of the infection cannot be determined. In some cases the microorganism originates from the patient’s own skin microbiota, becoming opportunistic after surgery or other procedures that compromise the protective skin barrier. Though the patient may have contracted the infection from their own skin, the infection is still considered nosocomial since it develops in the health care setting. The most important and frequent mode of transmission of nosocomial infections is by direct contact. This applies to microorganisms transmitted to the host by contaminated items, such as food, water, medications, devices, and equipment.
This occurs when vectors such as mosquitoes, flies, rats, and other vermin transmit microorganisms. Contact transmission is divided into two subgroups: direct-contact transmission and indirect-contact transmission. Direct-contact transmission also can occur between two patients, with one serving as the source of the infectious microorganisms and the other as a susceptible host. In addition, the improper use of saline flush syringes, vials, and bags has been implicated in disease transmission in the US, even when healthcare workers had access to gloves, disposable needles, intravenous devices, and flushes. Making Health Care Safer-CDC Vital Signs-March 2012. To reduce HAIs, the state of Maryland implemented the Maryland Hospital-Acquired Conditions Program that provides financial rewards and penalties for individual hospitals based on their ability to avoid HAIs. During the program’s first 2 years, complication rates fell by 15.