Freud beyond the pleasure principle pdf

Freud 1921 Jenseits des Lustprinzips. Thanatos, which brings destruction, repetition, freud beyond the pleasure principle pdf, compulsion, and self-destruction. In sections IV and V, Freud posits that the process of creating living cells binds energy and creates an imbalance.

It is the pressure of matter to return to its original state which gives cells their quality of living. The process is analogous to the creation and exhaustion of a battery. The compulsion of the matter in cells to return to a diffuse, inanimate state extends to the whole living organism. Thus, the psychological death-wish is a manifestation of an underlying physical compulsion present in every cell. Freud used that unpromising word “speculations” more than once”.

Freud begins with “a commonplace then unchallenged in psychoanalytic theory: ‘The course of mental events is automatically regulated by the pleasure principle  a strong tendency toward the pleasure principle'”. After considering the inevitable presence of unpleasant experiences in the life of the mind, he concludes the book’s first section to the effect that the presence of such unpleasant experiences “does not contradict the dominance of the pleasure principle  does not seem to necessitate any far-reaching limitation of the pleasure principle. Freud proceeds to look for “evidence, for the existence of hitherto unsuspected forces ‘beyond’ the pleasure principle. From these cases, Freud inferred the existence of motivations beyond the pleasure principle. Freud still wanted to examine the relationship between repetition compulsion and the pleasure principle. Although compulsive behaviors evidently satisfied some sort of drive, they were a source of direct unpleasure.

Somehow, “no lesson has been learnt from the old experience of these activities having led only to unpleasure. In spite of that, they are repeated, under pressure of a compulsion”. Freud concludes that the human psyche includes a compulsion to repeat that is independent of the pleasure principle. Freud begins to look for analogies repetition compulsion in the “essentially conservative  feature of instinctual life  the lower we go in the animal scale the more stereotyped does instinctual behavior appear”. Freud interprets an organism’s drive to avoid danger only as a way of avoiding a short-circuit to death: the organisms seeks to die in its own way.