The term is a truncation of the term “liberal profession”, which is, in turn, an Anglicization of the French term “profession libérale”. Just as some professions rise in characteristics of a professional teacher pdf and power through various stages, others may decline.
Disciplines formalized more recently, such as architecture, now have equally long periods of study associated with them. Proposals for the introduction or enhancement of statutory regulation may be welcomed by a profession as protecting clients and enhancing its quality and reputation, or as restricting access to the profession and hence enabling higher fees to be charged. It may be resisted as limiting the members’ freedom to innovate or to practice as in their professional judgement they consider best. An example was in 2008, when the British government proposed wide statutory regulation of psychologists. Another example of a regulatory body that governs a profession is the Hong Kong Professional Teachers Union, which governs the conduct, rights, obligations and duties of salaried teachers working in educational institutions in Hong Kong.
Typically, individuals are required by law to be qualified by a local professional body before they are permitted to practice in that profession. In such cases, qualification by the professional bodies is effectively still considered a prerequisite to practice as most employers and clients stipulate that the individual hold such qualifications before hiring their services. This requirement is set out by the Educational Department Bureau of Hong Kong, which is the governmental department that governs the Hong Kong education sector. However, it also has other meanings.
The concept of autonomy can therefore be seen to embrace not only judgement, but also self-interest and a continuous process of critical evaluation of ethics and procedures from within the profession itself. One major implication of professional autonomy is the traditional ban on corporate practice of the professions, especially accounting, architecture, medicine, and law. The obvious implication of this is that all equity owners of the professional business entity must be professionals themselves. This avoids the possibility of a non-professional owner of the firm telling a professional how to do his or her job and thereby protects professional autonomy.
But because professional business entities are effectively locked out of the stock market, they tend to grow relatively slowly compared to public corporations. This high esteem arises primarily from the higher social function of their work, which is regarded as vital to society as a whole and thus of having a special and valuable nature. This power is used to control its own members, and also its area of expertise and interests. A profession is characterized by the power and high prestige it has in society as a whole. It is the power, prestige and value that society confers upon a profession that more clearly defines it. As such they can bend rules, reduce bureaucratic inertia and increase problem solving and adaptability. There is considerable agreement about defining the characteristic features of a profession.
Oslo School of Architecture and Design. The World Medical Association Declaration of Madrid on Professional Autonomy and Self-Regulation”, 1987. Professional autonomy and the normative structure of medical practice”. Faculty pressures and professional self-esteem: Life in Texas teacher education”. The role of professional expertise in the purchasing of health services”.
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Assessments of teacher quality are currently used for policymaking, employment and tenure decisions, teacher evaluations, merit pay awards, and as data to inform the professional growth of teachers. In many countries, teaching credentials represent the main measure of teacher quality. Demographic characteristics such as a teacher’s gender, race, ethnicity, or socioeconomic background may also be characterized as elements of teacher quality as variables impacting student outcomes. These indicators of teacher quality are relatively straightforward to ascertain, as opposed to the student achievement and teacher observation measures described below. Teacher quality with regard to student achievement—also known as “teacher effectiveness”—is measured in terms of student achievement gains.
Student achievement is measured through the use of standardized tests to determine the academic growth of students over time. However, it has been argued that student achievement measures do not necessarily correlate entirely with teacher quality, given that there are various factors that influence a student’s performance which are not under the control of a teacher. This evidence may be collected from in-person or video recorded observations of teaching, pre- and post-observation conferences with teachers, and samples of teachers’ work with students. Assessments of teacher practice may examine teacher quality for a single lesson or over an entire school year. United States in order to align with state and federal accountability requirements. Many school districts have developed their own rubrics for this purpose, such as the IMPACT system used in the District of Columbia public schools.